Bodhicaryavatara – Shantideva

17

A guide to the bodhisattva way of life
(Bodhicaryavatara)
by Santideva
.
Translated from the Sanskrit and Tibetan
By Vesna A. Wallace and B. Alan Wallace

L1: [SHORT TABLE OF CONTENTS]
.
[Preface]
[Introduction]
[CHAPTER I – The Benefit of the Spirit of Awakening]
[CHAPTER II – The Confession of Sin]
[CHAPTER III – Adopting the Spirit of Awakening]
[CHAPTER IV – Attending to the Spirit of Awakening]
[CHAPTER V – Guarding Introspection (moral discipline (2))]
[CHAPTER VI – The Perfection of Patience (3)]
[CHAPTER VII – The Perfection of Zeal (4)]
[CHAPTER VIII – The Perfection of Meditation (5)]
[CHAPTER IX – The Perfection of Wisdom (6)]
[CHAPTER X – Dedication]
.
.
*******************************************************
*******************************************************
*******************************************************
.

L1: [Section: Preface]
.
Santideva's classic treatise, the Bodhicaryavatara, translated here as A Guide to the Bodhisattva Way of Life, has been the most widely read, cited, and practiced text in the whole of the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist tradition. Bu ston rin chen grub, a renowned Tibetan scholar of the thirteenth century, wrote in his History of Buddhism in India and Tibet that according to the Buddhist tradition, one hundred commentaries on the Bodhicaryavatara were extant in India, but only eight of them were translated into Tibetan. Moreover, His Holiness the Dalai Lama comments that the Bodhicaryavatara is the primary source of most of the Tibetan Buddhist literature on the cultivation of altruism and the Spirit of Awakening, and his recent comprehensive work entitled The World of Tibetan Buddhism frequently cites this text. The Bodhicaryavatara has also been a widely known and respected text in the Buddhist tradition of Mongolia, and it was the first Buddhist text translated into classical Mongolian from Tibetan by Coiji Odser in 1305.
Although the Bodhicaryavatara has already been translated several times into English, earlier translations have been based exclusively on either Sanskrit versions or Tibetan translations. To the best of our knowledge, no earlier translation into English, including the recent translation by Kate Crosby and Andrew Skilton, has drawn from both the Sanskrit version and its authoritative Sanskrit commentary of Prajnakaramati as well as Tibetan translations and commentaries. Our present translation is based on two Sanskrit editions, namely, Louis de la Vallee Poussin's edition (1901) of the Bodhicaryavatara and the Panjika commentary of Prajnakaramati, and P. L. Vaidya's edition (1960) of the Bodhicaryavatara and the Panjika commentary; and it is also based on the Tibetan Derge edition, entitled the Bodhisattva-caryavatara, translated by Sarvajnadeva and dPal brtsegs. We have also consulted two Tibetan commentaries to this work: sPyod 'jug rnam bshad rgyal sras 'jug ngogs by rGyal tshab dar ma rin chen and Byang chub sems pa'i spyod pa la 'jug pa'i 'grel bshad rgyal sras rgya mtsho'i yon tan rin po che mi zad 'jo ba'i bum bzang by Thub bstan chos kyi grags pa. As becomes apparent throughout the text, contrary to popular assumption, the recension incorporated into the Tibetan canon is significantly different from the Sanskrit version edited by Louis de la Vallee Poussin and P. L. Vaidya. This would seem to refute the contention of Crosby and Skilton that the canonical Tibetan translation by Bio Idan shes rab was based on the Sanskrit version available to us today. Moreover, pronouncements concerning which of the extant Sanskrit and Tibetan versions is truer to the original appear to be highly speculative, with very little basis in historical fact. This translation attempts to let these versions speak for themselves—as closely as the English allows—leaving our readers to make their own judgments concerning the degree of antiquity, authenticity, and overall coherence of the Sanskrit and Tibetan renditions of Santideva's classic treatise.
In terms of our methodology, we have primarily based our translation on the Sanskrit version and its commentary, though we have always consulted the Tibetan translation and its commentaries. Thus, the main text constitutes a translation of both the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions where they do not differ in content. However, in those verses where the Tibetan differs significantly from the Sanskrit, we have included English translations of the Tibetan version in footnotes to the text. Explanatory notes drawn from the Panjika commentary and other sources have also been given in footnotes to the text. Many of the Sanskrit verses of this text are concise and at times cryptic, and they often entail complex syntax. Thus, at times we were forced to take certain freedoms in our translation in order to make the English intelligible.
We hope that this translation will contribute to the greater understanding and appreciation of this classic treatise by Santideva, and that it will inspire others in the further study of this text and other works attributed to this great Indian Buddhist contemplative, scholar, and poet.
.
Vesna A. Wallace
B. Alan Wallace
Half Moon Bay, California
July 1996
.
*******************************************************
.

L1: [Section: Introduction]
L2: [A Brief Biography of Santideva]
.
Santideva, an eighth-century Indian Buddhist monk, is among the most renowned and esteemed figures in the entire history of Mahayana Buddhism. As in the case of many other figures in the history of Indian Buddhism, there is little historical knowledge of the life of Santideva. Two brief accounts of his life are found in Tibetan sources. One early, concise biography was composed by the great Tibetan scholar Bu ston (twelfth-thirteenth century) in his work The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet. A later account was composed by Taranatha (sixteenth-seventeenth century), a prominent Tibetan Buddhist scholar and historian. According to Taranatha, Santideva, like Buddha Sakyamuni, was born into a royal family and was destined for the throne. But on the verge of his coronation, Manjusri, a divine embodiment of wisdom, and Tara, a divine embodiment of compassion, both appeared to him in dreams and counseled him not to ascend to the throne. Thus, he left his father's kingdom, retreated to the wilderness, and devoted himself to meditation. During this time, he achieved advanced states of samadhi and various siddhis, and from that time forward he constantly beheld visions of Manjusri, who guided him as his spiritual mentor.
After this sojourn in the wilderness, he served for awhile as minister to a king, whom he helped to rule in accordance with the principles of Buddhism. But this aroused jealousy on the part of the other ministers, and Santideva withdrew from the service of the king. Making his way to the renowned monastic university of Nalanda, he took monastic ordination and devoted himself to the thorough study of the Buddhist sutras and tantras. It was during this period that he composed two other classic works: the Siksasamuccaya and the Sutrasamuccaya. But as far as his fellow monks could see, all he did was eat, sleep, and defecate.
Seeking to humiliate him and thus expel him from the monastery, the other scholars compelled him to recite a sutra before the monastic community and the public, a task they thought far exceeded his abilities. After some hesitation, Santideva agreed to the request and asked them, "Shall I recite an existing text or an original composition?" "Recite something new!" they told him, and in response he began chanting the Bodhicaryavatara. During this astonishing recital, when he came to the verse "When neither an entity nor a nonentity remains before the mind…," it is said that he rose up into the sky. Even after his body disappeared from sight, his voice completed the recitation of this text.
Different versions of this work were recorded by his listeners, and they could not come to a consensus as to which was the most accurate. Eventually, the scholars of Nalanda learned that Santideva had come to dwell in the city of Kalihga in Trilihga, and they journeyed there to entreat him to return to the university. Although he declined, he did tell them where to find copies of his other two works, and he told them which of the versions of the Bodhicaryavatara was true to his words.
Thereafter, Santideva retreated to a monastery in a forest filled with wildlife. Some of the other monks noticed that at times animals would enter his cell and not come out, and they accused him of killing them. After he had demonstrated to them that no harm had come to these creatures, he once again departed, despite the pleas of his fellow monks to remain. On this and many other occasions, Santideva is said to have displayed his amazing siddhis. From this point on, he renounced the signs of monkhood and wandered about India, devoting himself to the service of others.
.

L2: [Contextualization of the Bodhicaryavatara]
.
At the outset of this treatise, Santideva denies any originality to his work, and indeed its contents conform closely to the teachings of many of the Mahayana sutras. However, the poignancy and poetic beauty of his work belie his disavowal of any ability in composition. Due to the terse nature of his Sanskrit verses, the aesthetic quality of his treatise has been very difficult to convey in English. Therefore, in our translation, where necessary we have opted for accuracy of content over poetic quality. We hope this does not obscure the fact that the Bodhicaryavatara stands as one of the great literary and religious classics of the entire Buddhist tradition.
The thematic structure of this work is based on the six perfections of generosity, ethical discipline, patience, zeal, meditation, and wisdom, which provide the framework for the Bodhisattva's path to enlightenment. The first three chapters discuss the benefits of bodhicitta, the Spirit of Awakening that motivates the Bodhisattva way of life, and explain the means of cultivating and sustaining this altruistic aspiration. Those topics lay the foundation of the perfection of generosity.
The fourth and fifth chapters discuss the means of implementing the Spirit of Awakening in daily life and thereby address the perfection of ethical discipline. Chapters six, seven, and eight set forth the perfections of patience, zeal, and meditation, respectively. The sixth chapter is widely considered as a classic in its own right, for it presents a broad array of contemplations designed to counteract hatred, which is seen in the Mahayana as the most virulent of all the mental afflictions and the one most antithetical to the Bodhisattva way of life.
The eighth chapter, concerned with the perfection of meditation, has for its main theme the cultivation of altruism and the Spirit of Awakening. In recent years, however, this chapter has raised a certain degree of controversy on the grounds that it is misogynous. To determine whether or not that claim is justified, one must contextualize Santideva's discussion of a particular type of meditation that acts as an antidote to lust. Within the monastic context, the Buddhist teachings as a whole frequently address the impurity of a woman's body as a means of counteracting men's lust for women. Specifically, Santideva was himself a Buddhist monk, and this treatise was initially presented before an audience comprised chiefly of other Buddhist monks, who had taken vows of celibacy. From a Buddhist perspective, lust directed toward another person of either gender is not a sign of respect, regardless of the charming rhetoric that is often inspired by this mental affliction. Rather, attachment for another person actually dehumanizes its object by regarding this individual simply as an object for one's own gratification, rather than as a conscious subject with his or her own needs and desires.
In this eighth chapter, Santideva also discusses the disadvantages of attachment to one's own impure body. In addition, he writes of the problems of attachment to one's friends, possessions, reputation, as well as to women and their bodies. The central point of this entire discussion, as he points out in verse 85 of this chapter, is to become disillusioned with sensual desire. Immediately following this exposition, he addresses the main theme of this chapter, namely the meditative cultivation of altruism and the Spirit of Awakening, which embraces all beings, male and female, with love and compassion. The implication here is that insofar as one is free of self-centered craving for such things as sensual gratification, honor, and wealth, one is primed for the successful cultivation of genuine altruism.
The ninth chapter on the perfection of wisdom is one of the primary expositions in the Indian Buddhist tradition of the Prasangika Madhyamaka view, which accords with the writings of Buddhapalita and Candrakirti. The characteristic theme of this school is that all phenomena are devoid of any intrinsic nature, for they exist purely by the power of conceptual imputation. Thus, the whole of reality is comprised of two truths: conventional truth, which consists solely of dependently related events, and ultimate truth, which is the mere absence of an intrinsic nature of those events. Following a discussion of those two truths, Santideva presents concise Prasangika critiques of specific views of other Buddhist schools, such as the Yogacara and Vaibhasika, and non-Buddhist schools, such as the Samkhya and Nyaya. He also explains the Prasangika interpretation of personal and phenomenal identitylessness and the four applications of mindfulness; and he concludes with a variety of arguments in refutation of true, or intrinsic, existence.
In the tenth, concluding chapter, Santideva offers prayers dedicating the merits of this work for the benefit of all sentient beings. Here he returns to his initial theme of generosity and the Spirit of Awakening, which pervades this entire treatise.
.
*******************************************************
*******************************************************
*******************************************************
.

L1: [CHAPTER I – The Benefit of the Spirit of Awakening]
.
[The Benefit of the Spirit of Awakening — The benefits of bodhicitta, the two bodhicitta]
.
/ 0. OM Homage to the Buddha
.
L2: [331 – The preliminary explanation – 7 to 10]
.
/ 1. Reverently bowing to the Sugatas, who are endowed with the Dharmakaya, together with their Children and all who are worthy of veneration, I shall concisely present a guide to the discipline of the Children of the Sugatas in accordance with the scriptures.
.
/ 2. There is nothing here that has not been said before, nor do I have any skill in composition. Thus, I have no concern for the welfare of others, and I have composed this solely to season my own mind.
.
/ 3. Owing to this, the power of my faith increases to cultivate virtue. Moreover, if someone else with a disposition like my own examines this, it may be meaningful.
.
L2: [332 – The actual explanation of the stages of the path to enlightenment – 11 to 291]
L3: [332.1 The exhortation to grasp the significance of this precious human existence – 12]
.
/ 4. This leisure and endowment, which are so difficult to obtain, have been acquired, and they bring about the welfare of the world. If one fails to take this favorable opportunity into consideration, how could this occasion occur again?
.
L3: [332.2 The method to make this perfect human existence meaningful – 13 to 291]
L4: [332.21 The contemplation of the benefits of bodhicitta – 14 to 21]
L5: [332.211 An explanation of the benefits of bodhicitta – 15]
L6: [a. The conquest of all great evils:]
.
/ 5. Just as lightning illuminates the darkness of a cloudy night for an instant, in the same way, by the power of the Buddha, occasionally people's minds are momentarily inclined toward merit.
.
/ 6. Thus, virtue is perpetually ever so feeble, while the power of vice is great and extremely dreadful. If there were no Spirit of Perfect Awakening, what other virtue would overcome it?
.
L6: [b. The attainment of the most sublime happiness]
.
/ 7. The Lords of Sages, who have been contemplating for many eons, have seen this alone as a blessing by which joy is easily increased and immeasurable multitudes of beings are rescued.
.
L6: [c. Wish-fulfillment]
.
/ 8. Those who long to overcome the abundant miseries of mundane existence, those who wish to dispel the adversities of sentient beings, and those who yearn to experience a myriad of joys should never forsake the Spirit of Awakening.
.
L6: [d. Bodhicitta carries with it a special name and meaning]
.
/ 9. When the Spirit of Awakening has arisen, in an instant a wretch who is bound in the prison of the cycle of existence is called a Child of the Sugatas and becomes worthy of reverence in the worlds of gods and humans.
.
L6: [e. Transformation of the interior into the supreme]
.
/ 10. Upon taking this impure form, it transmutes it into the priceless image of the gem of the Jina. So, firmly hold to the quicksilver elixir, called the Spirit of Awakening, which must be utterly transmuted.
.
L6: [f. The value of the precious bodhicitta, so difficult to find]
.
/ 11. The world's sole leaders, whose minds are fathomless, have well examined its great value. You who are inclined to escape from the states of mundane existence, hold fast to the jewel of the Spirit of Awakening.
.
L6: [g. The inexhaustible and increasing fruits of bodhicitta]
.
/ 12. Just as a plantain tree decays upon losing its fruit, so does every other virtue wane. But the tree of the Spirit of Awakening perpetually bears fruit, does not decay, and only flourishes.
.
L6: [h. The power of protection from great fear]
.
/ 13. Owing to its protection, as due to the protection of a powerful man, even after committing horrendous vices, one immediately overcomes great fears. Why do ignorant beings not seek refuge in it?
.
L6: [i. The swift and easy destruction of great evil]
L6: [j. Scriptural citations of the benefits of bodhicitta]
.
/ 14. Like the conflagration at the time of the destruction of the universe, it consumes great vices in an instant. The wise Lord Maitreya taught its incalculable benefits to Sudhana.
.
L5: [332.212 Recognition of Bodhicitta – 16 to 19]
L6: [332.212.1 Divisions of Bodhicitta – 17]
.
/ 15. In brief, this Spirit of Awakening is known to be of two kinds: the spirit of aspiring for Awakening, and the spirit of venturing toward Awakening.
.
/ 16. Just as one perceives the difference between a person who yearns to travel and a traveler, so do the learned recognize the corresponding difference between those two.
.
L6: [332.212.2 Benefits of the aspiring mind of bodhicitta – 18]
.
/ 17. Although the result of the spirit of aspiring for Awakening is great within the cycle of existence, it is still not like the continual state of merit of the spirit of venturing.
.
L6: [332.212.3 Benefits of the engaging mind of bodhicitta – 19]
.
/ 18. From the time that one adopts that Spirit with an irreversible attitude for the sake of liberating limitless sentient beings,
.
/ 19. From that moment on, an uninterrupted stream of merit, equal to the sky, constantly arises even when one is asleep or distracted.
.
L5: [332.213 The reasons for the benefits of bodhicitta – 20]
.
/ 20. The Tathagata himself cogently asserted this in the Subahuprccha for the sake of beings who are inclined toward the Lesser Vehicle.
.
/ 21. A well-intentioned person who thinks, "I shall eliminate the headaches of sentient beings," bears immeasurable merit.
.
/ 22. What then of a person who desires to remove the incomparable pain of every single being and endow them with immeasurable good qualities?
.
/ 23. Who has even a mother or father with such altruism? Would the gods, sages, or Brahmas have it?
.
/ 24. If those beings have never before had that wish for their own sake even in their dreams, how could they possibly have it for the sake of others?
.
/ 25. How does this unprecedented and distinguished jewel, whose desire for the benefit of others does not arise in others even for their own self-interest, come into existence?
.
/ 26. How can one measure the merit of the jewel of the mind, which is the seed of the world's joy and is the remedy for the world's suffering?
.
/ 27. If reverence for the Buddhas is exceeded merely by an altruistic intention, how much more so by striving for the complete happiness of all sentient beings?
.
/ 28. Those desiring to escape from suffering hasten right toward suffering. With the very desire for happiness, out of delusion they destroy their own happiness as if it were an enemy.
.
/ 29. He satisfies with all joys those who are starving for happiness and eliminates all the sorrows of those who are afflicted in many ways.
.
/ 30. He dispels delusion. Where else is there such a saint? Where else is there such a friend? Where else is there such merit?
.
L5: [332.214 Praise to the one who gives birth to the bodhicitta – 21]
.
/ 31. Even one who repays a kind deed is praised somewhat, so what should be said of a Bodhisattva whose good deed is unsolicited?
.
/ 32. The world honors as virtuous one who makes a gift to a few people, even if it is merely a momentary and contemptuous donation of plain food and support for half a day.
.
/ 33. What then of one who forever bestows to countless sentient beings the fulfillment of all yearnings, which is inexhaustible until the end of beings as limitless as space?
.
/ 34. The Lord declared, "One who brings forth an impure thought in his heart against a benefactor, a Child of the Jina, will dwell in hells for as many eons as there were impure thoughts."
.
/ 35. But if one's mind is kindly inclined, one will bring forth an even greater fruit. Even when a greatly violent crime is committed against the Children of the Jinas, their virtue spontaneously arises.
.
/ 36. I pay homage to the bodies of those in whom this precious jewel of the mind has arisen. I go for refuge to those who are mines of joy, toward whom even an offence results in happiness.
.
————–
36 verses
.
*******************************************************
*******************************************************
*******************************************************
.

L1: [CHAPTER II – The Confession of Sin]
.
[The Confession of Sin — Disclosure of evil / purification]
.
[The first 3 of 7 limbs: offering, prostration, refuge, confession and the four opponent powers: regret, reliance, opponent force, promise]
.
[332.22 How to practice the six perfections once bodhicitta has been developed – 22 to 291]
[332.221 Maintaining the bodhicitta – 23 to 64]
[332.221 How to destroy obstacles and purify evil – 24 to 45]
.
L2: [332.221.11 The preliminary limbs of practice – 25 to 40]
L3: [332.221.111 Offering – 26 to 33]
.
/ 1. In order to adopt that jewel of the mind, I make offerings to the Tathagatas, to the stainless jewel of the sublime Dharma, and to the Children of the Buddhas, who are oceans of excellent qualities.
.
/ 2. As many flowers, fruits, and medicinal herbs as there are, and as many jewels as there are in the world, and clear and pleasant waters,
.
/ 3. Jeweled mountains, forested regions, and other delightful and solitary places, vines shining with the ornaments of lovely flowers, and trees with branches bowed with delicious fruit,
.
/ 4. Fragrances and incenses, wish-fulfilling trees, jeweled trees, lakes adorned with lotuses, enchanting calls of wild geese in the worlds of gods and other celestials,
.
/ 5. Uncultivated crops, planted crops, and other things that ornament the venerable ones, all these that are unowned and that extend throughout space,
.
/ 6. I bring to mind and offer to the Foremost of Sages together with their Children. May those worthy of precious gifts, the greatly merciful ones, compassionate toward me, accept these from me.
.
/ 7. Devoid of merit and destitute, I have nothing else to offer. Therefore, may the Protectors, whose concerns are for the welfare of others, accept this by their own power for my sake.
.
/ 8. I completely offer my entire self to the Jinas and their Children. O Supreme Beings, accept me! I reverently devote myself to your service.
.
/ 9. Being free from fear of mundane existence due to your protection, I shall serve sentient beings; I shall completely transcend my earlier vices, and henceforth I shall sin no more.
.
/ 10. In sweetly fragrant bathing chambers whose beautiful pillars are radiant with jewels, glowing canopies made of pearls, and crystal floors transparent and sparkling,
.
/ 11. I bathe the Tathagatas and their Children with many vases studded with superb jewels and filled with pleasing, fragrant flowers and water, to the accompaniment of songs and instrumental music.
.
/ 12. I dry their bodies with scented, immaculate, exquisite cloths; then I offer them beautifully colored and sweetly fragrant garments.
.
/ 13. I adorn Samantabhadra, Ajita, Manjughosa, Lokesvara, and others with those divine, soft, delicate, and colorful raiments and with the most precious of jewels.
.
/ 14. With perfumes permeating a thousand million worlds, I anoint the bodies of the Lords of Sages that are blazing with the luster of well-refined, rubbed, and polished gold.
.
/ 15. I worship the most glorious Lords of Sages with all wonderfully fragrant and pleasing blossoms—mandarava flowers, blue lotuses, and others—and with splendidly arranged garlands.
.
/ 16. I perfume them with enchanting clouds of incenses having a pungent and pervasive aroma. I offer them feasts consisting of various foods and drinks.
.
/ 17. I offer them jeweled lamps, mounted in rows on golden lotuses; and I scatter lovely drifts of blossoms on the floor anointed with perfume.
.
/ 18. To those filled with love I also offer brilliant multitudes of palaces, delightful with songs of praise, radiant with garlands of pearls and jewels, and ornamented at the entrances in four directions.
.
/ 19. I bring to mind the great sages' exquisitely beautiful, jeweled parasols perfectly raised with golden handles, lovely shapes, and inlaid pearls.
.
/ 20. Thereafter, may delightful clouds of offerings rise high, and clouds of instrumental music that enrapture all sentient beings.
.
/ 21. May showers of flowers, jewels, and the like continually fall on the images, reliquaries, and all the jewels of the sublime Dharma.
.
/ 22. Just as Manjughosa and others worship the Jinas, so do I worship the Tathagatas, the Protectors, together with their Children.
.
L3: [332.221.112 Prostrations – 34]
.
/ 23. With hymns that are seas of melodies, I praise the Oceans of Virtues. May the clouds of harmonies of praise ascend to them in the same way.
.
/ 24. With prostrations as numerous as the atoms within all the Buddha-fields, I bow to the Buddhas present in all the three times, to the Dharma, and to the Sublime Assembly.
.
/ 25. Likewise, I pay homage to all the shrines and to the resting-places of the Bodhisattva. I prostrate to the preceptors and to the praiseworthy adepts as well.
.
L3: [332.221.113 Going for refuge – 35 to 40]
.
/ 26. I go for refuge to the Buddha as far as the quintessence of enlightenment; I go for refuge to the Dharma and the community of Bodhisattvas.
.
L2: [332.221.12 The declaration of non-virtue – the four powers – 41 to 45]
L3: [332.221.121 The power of regret – 42]
.
/ 27. With folded hands I beseech the Fully Awakened Ones present in all directions and the greatly compassionate Bodhisattvas.
.
/ 28. Whatever sin I, a brute, have committed or caused others to commit in this life and others throughout the beginningless cycle of existence,
.
/ 29. And anything in which I have deludedly rejoiced, thereby harming myself—that transgression I confess, overcome by remorse.
.
/ 30. Whatever offence I have committed, out of disrespect, with my body, speech, and mind against the Three Jewels, against mothers and fathers, and against spiritual mentors and others,
.
/ 31. And whatever terrible vices I, a sinner, defiled with many faults, have done, O Guides, I confess them all.
.
/ 32. How shall I escape it? Rescue me quickly! May death not soon creep up on me before my vices have vanished.
.
/ 33. Death does not differentiate between tasks done and undone. This traitor is not to be trusted by the healthy or the ill, for it is like an unexpected, great thunderbolt.
.
/ 34. I have committed various vices for the sake of friends and enemies. This I have not recognized: "Leaving everyone behind, I must pass away."
.
/ 35. My enemies will not remain, nor will my friends remain. I shall not remain. Nothing will remain.
.
/ 36. Whatever is experienced will fade to a memory. Like an experience in a dream, everything that has passed will not be seen again.
.
/ 37. Even in this life, as I have stood by, many friends and enemies have passed away, but terrible sin induced by them remains ahead of me.
.
/ 38. Thus, I have not considered that I am ephemeral. Due to delusion, attachment, and hatred, I have sinned in many ways.
.
/ 39. Day and night, a life span unceasingly diminishes, and there is no adding onto it. Shall I not die then?
.
/ 40. Although lying here on a bed and relying on relatives, I alone have to bear the feeling of being cut off from my vitality.
.
/ 41. For a person seized by the messengers of Death, what good is a relative and what good is a friend? At that time, merit alone is a protection, and I have not applied myself to it.
.
/ 42. O Protectors, I, negligent and unaware of this danger, have acquired many vices out of attachment to this transient life.
.
/ 43. One completely languishes while being led today to have the limbs of one's body amputated. Parched with thirst, and with pitiable eyes, one sees the world differently.
.
/ 44. How much more is one overpowered by the horrifying appearances of the messengers of Death as one is consumed by the fever of terror and smeared with a mass of excrement?
.
/ 45. With distressed glances I seek protection in the four directions. Which good person will be my protection from this great fear?
.
/ 46. Seeing the four directions devoid of protection, I return to confusion. What shall I do in that state of great fear?
.
L3: [332.