Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas Aryadeva – 2

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The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas (catuhsataka sastra karika nama) — Aryadeva

L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
.
Thinking about the impermanence and uncleanness of the body,
Understand the faults of attachment to it.
Make effort to achieve unsurpassable enlightenment
And GIVE UP PRIDE IN BOTH "I" AND "MINE".
.
This is the fourth chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to abandon the
conception of a self.
.
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L1: [Section I – B : Explaining how to train in the deeds, having generated the practical altruistic intention [bodhicitta].]
L2: [Chapter 5 – Bodhisattva Deeds – What counts is the Bodhicitta motivation in all actions, using gradual adapted
skilful means and knowledge, compassion, patience, these give incommensurable powers – P.133]
L3: [I. Showing the greatness of Buddhahood, the resultant attainment]
L4: [A. Distinctive features of a Buddha’s activities – 101]
.
101.
Not a single movement of Buddhas
Is without reason; even their breathing
Is EXCLUSIVELY FOR
THE BENEFIT OF SENTIENT BEINGS.
.
L4: [B. Their effect – 102]
.
102.
Just as ordinary people are
Terrified by the words "Lord of Death,"
So the words "Omniscient One"
Terrify the Lord of Death.
.
L4: [C. Not answering fourteen questions is no suitable proof for lack of omniscience – 103]
.
103.
A Subduer has [perception of] that
Which should and should not be done or said.
What reason is there to say
That the Omniscient One is not all-knowing?
.
L3: [II. Explaining how to practice Bodhisattva deeds, the cause of Buddhahood]
L4: [A. Special features of the motivation for training in these deeds]
L5: [1. Showing mind as the principal of the three doors – 104]
.
104.
Without INTENTION, actions like going
Are not seen to have merit and so forth.
In all actions, therefore, the mind
Should be understood as paramount.
.
L5: [2. Showing how even that which is non-virtuous in others becomes supremely virtuous in Bodhisattvas by the
power of their attitude – 105]
.
105.
In Bodhisattvas, through their INTENTION,
All actions, virtuous and non-virtuous,
Become perfect virtue because
They are in control of their minds.
.
L4: [B. Merit of generating the altruistic intention]
L5: [1. Merit of generating the first ultimate altruistic intention – 106]
.
106.
The merit of Bodhisattvas with
THE FIRST INTENTION far exceeds
That which would make all beings on earth
Become universal monarchs.
.
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L5: [2. Specific merit of causing others to generate the altruistic intention – 107]
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107.
Someone may build a precious
Reliquary, as high as the world;
It is said training others to generate
THE ALTRUISTIC INTENTION is more excellent.
.
L4: [C. Actual mode of training in the deeds]
L5: [1. Physical and verbal conduct in acting for others’ welfare – 108]
.
108.
A spiritual guide who wishes to help
Must be attentive toward students.
They are called students because
Of not knowing what will benefit.
.
L6: [a. Analogy showing one must be compassionate towards a recalcitrant person – 109]
.
109.
Just as a physician is not upset with
Someone who rages while possessed by a demon,
Subduers see disturbing emotions as
The enemy, not the person who has them.
.
L6: [b. Stages of guiding trainees – 110]
.
110.
That for which someone has
Liking should first be assessed.
Those who are disinclined will not
Be vessels for the excellent teaching.
.
L6: [c. Being particularly compassionate towards those with very strong disturbing emotions – 111]
.
111.
Just as a mother is especially
Anxious about a sick child,
Bodhisattvas are especially
Compassionate toward the unwise.
.
L6: [d. How to act for others’ welfare according to their capacities and inclinations – 112]
.
112.
The become students of some
And become teachers of others,
THROUGH SKILLFUL MEANS AND KNOWLEDGE
Giving understanding to those who do not understand.
.
L6: [e. The effect of strongly developed compassion]
L7: [(1) When the strength of compassion is thoroughly developed, those who cannot be trained are rare – 113]
.
113.
Just as for an experienced physician
A sickness that cannot be cured is rare,
Once Bodhisattvas have found their strength,
Those they cannot train are extremely few.
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L7: [(2) Faults of not giving encouragement for others’ benefit – 114]
.
114.
If some within a Bodhisattva's sphere
Lacking encouragement, go
To bad rebirths, that one will be
Criticized by others with intelligence.
.
L5: [3. Faults of deficient compassion – 115]
.
115.
How can one unwilling to say
That compassion for the oppressed is good,
Later out of compassion
Give to the protectorless?
.
L5: [4. Faults of not appreciating Bodhisattvas and suitability of cultivating appreciation]
L6: [a. Faults of not appreciating Bodhisattvas – 116]
.
116.
When those [beings] suffer loss
Who are indifferent toward
One who stays in the world to help transmigrators,
What doubt about those who are hostile?
.
L6: [b. Suitability of cultivating appreciation]
L7: [(1) Suitability of appreciating deeds difficult to perform – 117]
.
117.
One who in all lives has the five
Super-knowledges [appears] as inferior
With a nature like the inferior —
This is extremely hard to do.
.
L7: [(2) Considering their limitless qualities, one should appreciate them – 118]
.
118.
The Tathagata said that the merit
Gathered constantly through skillful means
For a very long time is immeasurable
Even for the omniscient.
.
L5: [5. Why they can complete their deeds]
L6: [a. Why they take special delight in giving – 119]
.
119.
The word "giving" (dana) indicates
Death, practice (of the six paramitas) and other (desirable) existences.
That is why the word "giving" always
Is of interest to Bodhisattvas.
.
L6: [b. Criticism of inferior generosity – 120]
.
120.
When one thinks that by giving gifts now
There will be a great result,
Receiving and giving are like trade
For the profit, which will be criticized.
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L6: [c. Why they can accomplish all deeds – 121]
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121.
For such a one, even previously
Performed ill deeds will have no [effect].
There is nothing one with virtue
Considers should not be accomplished.
.
L6: [d. Why they do not strive just for their own happiness – 122]
.
122.
Even here nothing harms
One with a powerful mind, and thus
For such a one, WORLDLY EXISTENCE
AND NIRVANA ARE NO DIFFERENT.
.
L6: [e. Why they can take special physical forms – 123]
.
123.
Why should anyone who takes birth
Through constant control of the mind
Not become a ruler
Of the entire world?
.
L3: [III. Proof of resultant omniscience – 124]
.
124.
Even in this world among excellent things
Some are seen to be most excellent.
Thus realize that certainly also
INCONCEIVABLE POWER exists.
.
L3: [IV. Showing why those with poor intelligence fear the Great Vehicle – 125]
.
125.
Just as the ignorant feel afraid
Of the extremely profound teaching,
So the weak feel afraid
Of the marvelous teaching.
.
L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
.
Having considered the faults of cyclic existence well,
Enter this profound and extensive Great Vehicle
Of which those with poor intelligence feel afraid,
And MAKE BODHISATTVA DEEDS YOUR QUINTESSENTIAL PRACTICE.
.
This is the fifth chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing Bodhisattva seeds.
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L2: [Chapter 6 – Abandoning Disturbing Emotions – The Middle Way – the two accumulations : methods based on
dependent origination (antidotes to the three poisons, patience, compassion, bodhicitta) and the wisdom realizing
emptiness (the ultimate antidote) – The Two Truths – P.151]
L3: [I. Refuting the contention that contaminated actions and disturbing attitudes and emotions are eliminated by
tormenting the body with ascetic practices – 126]
.
126.
If desire increases through pleasure
And anger increases through pain,
Why are those with pleasure not ascetics?
Why are the ascetics those with pain?
.
L3: [II. Explaining the means to abandon disturbing emotions]
L4: [A. The way to abandon manifest disturbing emotions]
L5: [1. General explanation of how to abandon the three poisons]
L6: [a. Functions of the three poisons must be understood – 127]
.
127.
Desire's activity is acquisition;
Anger's activity is conflict.
As wind is to all the elements,
Confusion's activity is nurture.
.
L6: [b. Reason for the need to eliminate the three poisons – 128]
.
128.
Desire is painful because of not getting,
Anger is painful through lack of might,
And confusion through not understanding.
Because of this, these are not recognized.
.
L6: [c. Antidotes to anger and desire must be applied individually – 129]
.
129.
Just as it is seen that bile
Does not occur with phlegm,
One sees that desire, too,
Does not occur with anger.
.
L6: [d. How to treat students having desire and anger – 130]
.
130.
Desire should be driven like a slave
Because severity is its cure,
And anger looked upon as a lord
Because indulgence is its cure.
.
L6: [e. How to apply the antidotes on understanding the sequence in which disturbing emotions arise – 131]
.
131.
First there is confusion,
In the middle there is anger,
And later there is desire,
In three stages during the day.
.
L5: [2. Individual explanation]
L6: [a. How to abandon desire]
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L7: [(1) Desire being hard to recognize as something to discard, exertion is required to abandon it – 132]
.
132.
Desire is no friend, but seems like one,
Which is why you do not fear it.
But shouldn't people particularly
Rid themselves of a harmful friend?
.
L7: [(2) Having understood the differences regarding causes and conditions, it should be abandoned – 133]
.
133.
Desire arises from causes and
Also arises through circumstance.
Desire arising through circumstance
Is easy to deal with; not the other.
.
L6: [b. How to abandon hatred – 134]
.
134.
Anger is lasting and certainly
Makes one do grave non-virtue.
Thus constant awareness of their distinctions
Will bring to an end disturbing emotions.
.
L6: [c. How to abandon confusion]
L7: [(1) Recognizing the root of disturbing emotions – 135]
.
135.
As the tactile sense [pervades] the body
Confusion is present in them all.
BY OVERCOMING CONFUSION ONE WILL ALSO
OVERCOME ALL DISTURBING EMOTIONS.
.
L7: [(2) Recognizing the antidote which eliminates it – 136]
.
136.
WHEN DEPENDENT ARISING (… EMPTINESS) IS SEEN
CONFUSION WILL NOT OCCUR.
Thus every effort has been made here
To explain precisely this subject.
.
L5: [3. Detailed explanation of how to abandon anger and desire]
L6: [a. How to abandon desire]
L7: [(1) Characteristics of a person habituated to desire – 137]
.
137.
They always like "Claiming the Earth,"
Are extravagant, greedy and fastidious.
Characteristics such as these
Are seen in people with desire.
.
L7: [(2) Means of caring for such a person – 138]
.
138.
Buddhas told those with desire
That food, clothes and dwellings are all
To be avoided and to remain
Close to their spiritual guides.
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L6: [b. Explaining extensively how to abandon anger]
L7: [(1) Considering the disadvantages of anger – 139]
.
139.
Through anger, those who are powerless
Only make themselves look ugly;
But one who has power and is merciless
Is said to be the worst.
.
L7: [(2) Explaining extensively how to apply antidotes to anger
L8: [(a) Inappropriateness of anger at the circumstances which terminate the effects of ill deeds – 140]
.
140.
It is said unpleasant words
End previously done ill deeds.
The ignorant and unwise do not
Want to purify themselves.
.
L8: [(b) Inappropriateness of anger because unpleasant words are designated as harmful by oneself and are not
inherently harmful – 141]
.
141.
Though unpleasant to hear
They are not intrinsically harmful.
Thus it is fantasy to think that
What comes from preconception comes from elsewhere.
.
L8: [(c) Advice to punish the abuser in treatises on social conventions is wrong – 142]
.
142.
Just as it plainly says
The abuser should be punished,
Likewise why not should one who speaks
Pleasantly not be rewarded?
.
L8: [(d) Inappropriateness of anger at those who make others aware of one’s faults – 143]
.
143.
If that for which you are reviled
Is known to others though they are not told,
And anger at the speaker is unreasonable,
How much more so toward those who lie.
.
L8: [(e) Inappropriateness of anger when inferiors use abusive language – 144]
.
144.
Abuse from inferiors
Does not ensure escape.
Abuse from inferiors thus should be
Seen as isolated and trivial.
.
L7: [(3) Refuting that it is not wrong to punish the slanderer of an innocent person – 145]
.
145.
If harming others is not even
Of the slightest use to you,
Your approval of useless aggression
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Is just an addiction.
.
L7: [(4) Preventing anger by considering the benefits of patience]
L8: [(a) Appropriateness of patience towards abuse – 146]
.
146.
If through PATIENCE enormous merit
Is acquired effortlessly,
Who is a foolish as
One who obstructs this?
.
L8: [(b) Inappropriateness of approving of aggression which defeats only the weak – 147]
.
147.
Aggression especially
Does not arise toward the powerful.
Why then do you approve of
Aggression which defeats the weak?
.
L8: [(c) Appropriateness of rejoicing since patience towards [a cause of] anger is the source of all accomplishments –
148]
.
148.
Whoever is patient with the source
Of anger develops meditation.
Saying you fear the source of
Good qualities is just foolish of you.
.
L7: [(5) Appropriateness of cultivating patience when disparaged by others – 149]
.
149.
Who has gone to the next world
Having ended all disparagement?
Therefore consider contempt
Preferable to ill deeds.
.
L4: [B. How to cultivate the antidote which totally destroys the see – 150]
.
150.
Disturbing emotions will never
Remain in the mind of ONE
WHO UNDERSTAND THE REALITY of
The abiding and so forth of consciousness.
.
L3: [The summarizing stanza: (we need both method and wisdom)]
.
Transmigrators governed by disturbing emotions like desire,
Which prevent activities for the attainment of enlightenment,
Are conveyed to the happiness of liberation by teaching them
To become familiar with (the Two Truths:) love and repulsiveness (i.e. temporary methods / antidotes) and by
teaching them suchness (i.e. wisdom realizing the real nature of our own mind and of everything – non-duality).
.
This is the sixth chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to abandon disturbing
emotions.
.
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L2: [Chapter 7 – Abandoning Attachment to Sense Objects – Perfecting the practices of virtues by combining them with
wisdom – P.169]
L3: [I. Considering the disadvantages of cyclic existence]
L4: [A. Considering the general faults of cyclic existence]
L5: [1. Why it is necessary to cultivate fear of cyclic existence – 151]
.
151.
When there is no end at all
To THIS OCEAN OF SUFFERING,
Why are you childish people
Not afraid of drowning in it?
.
L5: [2. How to generate aversion to it]
L6: [a. Inappropriateness of attachment to youth – 152]
.
152.
Youth lies behind and then
Once more it is ahead.
Though [one imagines] it will last,
In this world it is like a race.
.
L6: [b. Appropriateness of fear, because of being governed by contaminated actions and
.
153.
In worldly existence there is never
Rebirth of one's own free will.
Being under other's control,
Who with intelligence would be fearless?
.
L6: [c. Advice to make effort to abandon the causes for rebirth in cyclic existence – 154]
.
154.
The future is endless and
You were always a common being.
Act so that it will never again
Be as it was in the past.
.
L6: [d. Refuting that effort to abandon cyclic existence is purposeless and ineffectual]
L7: [(1) Actual meaning – 155]
.
155.
The conjunction of a listener,
What is to be heard and an exponent
Is very rare. In brief, the cycle of
Rebirths neither has nor has not an end.
.
L7: [(2) Repudiating hope for the future without effort in this life – 156]
.
156.
Most people cling to
An unwholesome direction.
Thus most common beings
Certainly go to bad rebirths.
.
L4: [B. Specifically abandoning attachment to happy rebirths]
L5: [1. Aversion should be cultivated even to happy rebirths – 157]
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157.
On earth the maturation of ill deeds
Is seen to be only deleterious.
Thus to the wise the world appears
Similar to a slaughterhouse.
.
L5: [2. Showing that to remain in cyclic existence out of attachment is like insanity – 158]
.
158.
If "insane" means
That one's mind is unstable,
What wise person would say that those
In worldly existence are not insane?
.
L3: [II. Abandoning contaminated actions, the cause for birth there]
L4: [A. Advice to abandon actions projecting rebirth there – 159]
.
159.
The pain of walking, one sees,
Decreases when doing the opposite.
THUS THE INTELLIGENT GENERATE
THE INTENTION TO END ALL ACTION.
.
L4: [B. Why it is necessary to abandon them]
L5: [1. Since cyclic existence is a source of fear, it should be abandoned by way of its cause, contaminated actions –
160]
.
160.
When a single effect's original cause
Is not seen, and one sees the extensiveness
Regarding even a single effect,
Who would not be afraid?
.
L5: [2. Cultivation of fear considering the effects of contaminated actions – 161]
.
161.
Since all results will not definitely
Be achieved, and those that are
Will certainly come to an end,
Why exhaust yourself for their sake?
.
L5: [3. Considering the nature of contaminated actions, effort should be made to abandon them – 162]
.
162.
Once it is done, work done with effort
Effortlessly disintegrates.
Though this is so, still you are not
At all free from attachment to actions (or a path).
.
L5: [4. Inappropriateness of attachment to contaminated actions on the grounds that they cause pleasure – 163]
.
163.
There is no pleasure in relation to
Either the past or the future.
That which occurs now, too, is passing.
Why do you weary yourself?
.
L4: [C. Actual way to abandon them]
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L5: [1. Repudiating attachment to meritorious actions]
L6: [a. Generally repudiating accumulation of actions for the sake of high rebirth out of attachment]
L7: [(1) Appropriateness of fear since the Exalted see even high rebirths as [being] like hells – 164]
.
164.
The wise feel the same fear for even
A high rebirth as for the hells.
It is rare indeed for a worldly state
Not to produce fear in them.
.
L7: [(2) If ordinary people ever perceived it like this, they would immediately faint – 165]
.
165.
If childish people ever perceived
The suffering of cyclic existence,
At that moment both their mind
[And body] would completely fail.
.
L6: [b. Rarity of going from happiness to happiness]
L7: [(1) Actual meaning – 166]
.
166.
People without pride are rare,
And the proud have no compassion.
Thus it is said to be very rare
To go from light to light.
.
L7: [(2) Repudiating attachment to high rebirths attained through abstaining from ill deeds – 167]
.
167.
Whoever renounces them now
Will, it is said, obtain sense objects.
For what reason would such perverse
Practice to be considered correct?
.
L6: [c. Detailed repudiation of accumulating actions for the sake of high rebirths]
L7: [(1) Repudiating accumulation of actions for the sake of possessions – 168]
.
168.
Wealth, the result of merit,
Must be thoroughly protected from others.
How can that which must be constantly
Protected from others be one's own?
.
L7: [(2) Repudiating their accumulation out of attachment to worldly practices – 169]
.
169.
Different social customs
Are termed "religious practices."
Thus it seems as if society has
More influence than religious practices.
.
L7: [(3) Repudiating their accumulation for the sake of attractive objects – 170]
.
170.
Through virtue there are attractive objects,
But such objects too are considered bad.
By giving them up, one will be happy.
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What need is there to acquire them?
.
L7: [(4) Repudiating their accumulation for the sake of power and wealth – 171]
.
171.
For one in need of authority,
Practices for that [end] are meaningless.
Whoever strives for authority
Is called a fool among men.
.
L7: [(5) Repudiating the accumulation of actions out of attachment to subsequent wealth – 172]
.
172.
With a view to future effects
You grasp at practices out of greed.
When you see the future outcome
Why are you not afraid?
.
L5: [2. Repudiating accumulation of demeritorious actions – 173]
.
173.
Merit is in every way
Just like a wage for a wage earner.
How could those who do not want
[Even] virtue do what is non-virtuous?
.
L3: [III. Explaining the need to abandon contaminated actions]
L4: [A. The wise, who understand reality, abandon attachment and reach liberation – 174]
.
174.
Whoever SEES PHENOMENA AS LIKE
A COLLECTION OF MECHANICAL DEVICES
AND LIKE ILLUSORY BEINGS,
Most clearly reaches the excellent state.
.
L4: [B. When the wise do not enjoy even a high rebirth out of attachment, their enjoyment of states consistent with
aversion is impossible – 175]
.
175.
For those who do not enjoy
Any objects in cyclic existence
It is altogether impossible
To take pleasure in this [world].
.
L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
.
Thinking thoroughly about impermanence and suffering
Give up craving for objects such as visual form [i.e. or higher rebirths],
The cause for this bottomless boundless ocean of suffering,
And strive to attain unsurpassable enlightenment.
.
This is the seventh chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to give up clinging to
objects of enjoyment which humans desire.
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L2: [Chapter 8 – Thoroughly Preparing the Student – The progressive, adapted development of wisdom without falling
to the other extremes – P.185]
L3: [I. Why disturbing emotions can be abandoned]
L4: [A. Actual meaning – 176]
.
176.
Just as friendship between people
Who disagree does not last long,
Desire does not last long
When all things' faults are recognized.
.
L4: [B. Showing how it is possible to abandon disturbing emotions]
L5: [1. Disturbing emotions can be abandoned because their focal basis is not definitive – 177]
.
177.
Some are attracted to it,
Some are averse to it,
Some feel confused by it:
Thus desire has no object.
.
L5: [2. Causes giving rise to disturbing emotions do not exist truly – 178]
.
178.
Apart from CONCEPTUALITY,
Desire and so forth have no existence.
Who with intelligence would hold [that there are]
Real things [imputed by] conceptuality?
.
L5: [3. Refuting proof that disturbing emotions cannot be abandoned – 179]
.
179.
None is, as it were,
Bound to another.
It is unfeasible to separate
That which is bound together.
.
L5: [4. Lack of contradiction in seeing many who have not abandoned disturbing emotions – 180]
.
180.
Those with little merit
Do not even doubt this teaching.
.
Entertaining just a doubt
Tears to tatters worldly existence.
.
L3: [II. Explaining extensively how to abandon disturbing emotions]
L4: [A. Advice to understand the meaning of emptiness]
L5: [1. Advice to take an interest in the meaning of the fundamental mode of existence – 181]
.
181.
The Subduer said of this teaching
There will be increase until liberation.
Anyone who lacks interest in it
Clearly has no sense.
.
L5: [2. Showing the need to understand emptiness in order to attain liberation – 182]
.
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182.
One does not regard that which is not empty
As empty, thinking [thereby] to gain nirvana.
Tathagatas say that nirvana
Will not be attained through wrong views.
.
L5: [3. Showing the means to turn away from cyclic existence – 183]
.
183.
Whatever contains teaching
About the world speaks of engagement.
Whatever contains elucidation
Of the ultimate speaks of disengagement.
.
L5: [4. Giving up fear of emptiness – 184]
.
184.
Thinking, "Nothing exists, what is the use?"
You may be afraid.
But if actions did exist,
This teaching would not be a prevention.
.
L5: [5. Giving up strong attachment to one’s own position – 185]
.
185.
While attached to your own position
And disliking others' positions
You will not approach nirvana.
Neither [kind of] conduct will bring peace.
.
L4: [B. Advice to strive for liberation]
L5: [1. With effort liberation is easy to attain – 186]
.
186.
Not acting brings about nirvana;
Acting again brings worldly existence.
Thus, without complication, nirvana
Is easy to attain, but not the latter.
.
L5: [2. Impossibility of attaining liberation without cultivating aversion to cyclic existence – 187]
.
187.
How can anyone who has no aversion
To this take an interest in pacification?
Like [leaving] home, it is also hard
To leave worldly existence behind.
.
L5: [3. Appropriateness of striving for liberation because of the very great disadvantages of cyclic existence – 188]
.
188.
One sees that some who are overwhelmed
By suffering long for death,
“,1”