Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta – DN 11

75

Dīgha Nikāya

Sīlakkhandhavagga

Kevaddha Sutta

11. Tentang Kevaddha

Apa yang Tidak Diketahui Brahmā

Demikianlah yang kudengar. Pada suatu ketika Sang Bhagavā sedang menetap di Nāḷandā, di kebun mangga Pāvārika. Dan perumah tangga Kevaddha datang menemui Sang Bhagavā, bersujud kepada Beliau, dan duduk di satu sisi. Kemudian ia berkata: ‘Bhagavā, Nāḷandā ini kaya, makmur, ramai, dan dipenuhi dengan orang yang berkeyakinan terhadap Sang Bhagavā. Baik sekali jika Sang Bhagavā mengutus beberapa bhikkhu untuk melakukan pertunjukan kesaktian dan keajaiban. Dengan demikian Nālandā akan lebih berkeyakinan terhadap Bhagavā.’

Sang Bhagavā menjawab: ‘Kevaddha, itu bukanlah cara Aku mengajarkan Dhamma kepada para bhikkhu, dengan mengatakan: “Pergilah, para bhikkhu, dan perlihatkanlah kesaktian dan keajaiban demi umat-awam berjubah putih!’

Untuk kedua kalinya Kevaddha berkata: ‘Bhagavā, aku tidak akan memaksa, namun aku tetap mengatakan: “Nālandā ini kaya, makmur, … akan lebih berkeyakinan terhadap Bhagavā.”’ Dan Sang Bhagavā menjawab seperti sebelumnya.

ketika Kevaddha mengulangi permohonannya untuk ketiga kalinya, Sang Bhagavā berkata: ‘Kevaddha, ada tiga jenis kesaktian yang kKnyatakan, setelah mencapainya dengan pandangan terang-Ku sendiri. Apakah tiga itu? Kesaktian kekuatan batin, kesaktian telepati, kesaktian pengajaran.

‘Apakah kesaktian kekuatan batin? Di sini, Kevaddha, seorang bhikkhu memperlihatkan berbagai kesaktian dalam berbagai cara. Dari satu ia menjadi banyak, dari banyak ia menjadi satu … (seperti Sutta 2, paragraf 87) dan ia dengan tubuhnya pergi hingga ke alam Brahma. Dan seseorang yang memiliki keyakinan dan percaya akan melihatnya melakukan hal-hal ini.

‘Ia memberitahukan hal ini kepada orang lain yang skeptis dan tidak percaya, dengan mengatakan: “Sungguh indah, sungguh menakjubkan, kesaktian dan keterampilan dari pertapa itu … ” Dan orang itu akan berkata: “Tuan, ada sesuatu yang disebut jimat Gandhāra. Dengan itu bhikkhu tersebut menjadi banyak … ” Bagaimana menurutmu, Kevaddha, tidak mungkinkah seorang skeptis mengatakan hal itu kepada seorang yang percaya?’ ‘Mungkin saja, Bhagavā’ ‘Dan itulah sebabnya, Kevaddha, melihat bahaya dari kesaktian demikian, Aku tidak menyukai, menolak dan mencelanya.

‘Dan apakah kesaktian telepati? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu membaca pikiran makhluk-makhluk lain, pikiran orang lain, membaca kondisi pikiran mereka, pemikiran dan pertimbangan mereka, dan mengatakan: “Pikiranmu seperti ini, kecenderunganmu seperti ini, hatimu seperti ini”. Dan seseorang yang berkeyakinan dan percaya akan melihatnya melakukan hal-hal ini.

‘Ia memberitahukan hal ini kepada orang lain yang skeptis dan tidak percaya, dengan mengatakan: “Sungguh indah, sungguh menakjubkan, kesaktian dan keterampilan dari pertapa itu … ” Dan orang itu akan berkata: “Tuan, ada sesuatu yang disebut jimat Maṇika. Dengan itu bhikkhu tersebut dapat membaca pikiran orang lain … ” Dan itulah sebabnya, Kevaddha, melihat bahaya dari kesaktian demikian, Aku … dan mencelanya.

‘Dan apakah kesaktian pengajaran? Di sini, Kevaddha, seorang bhikkhu memberikan pengajaran sebagai berikut: “Perhatikan seperti ini, jangan perhatikan seperti itu, arahkan pikiranmu seperti ini, bukan seperti itu, lepaskan itu, capai ini dan pertahankan ini.” Itu, Kevaddha, disebut kesaktian pengajaran.

‘Dan lagi, Kevaddha, seorang Tathāgata telah muncul di dunia ini, seorang Arahant, Buddha yang telah mencapai penerangan sempurna, memiliki kebijaksanaan dan perilaku yang sempurna, telah sempurna menempuh Sang Jalan, Pengenal seluruh alam, Penjinak manusia yang harus dijinakkan yang tiada bandingnya, Guru para dewa dan manusia, Yang Tercerahkan dan Yang Suci. Beliau, setelah mencapainya dengan pengetahuanNya sendiri, menyatakan dunia ini dengan para dewa, māra dan Brahmā, para raja dan umat manusia. Beliau membabarkan Dhamma, yang indah di awal, indah di pertengahan, indah di akhir, dalam makna dan kata, dan menunjukkan kehidupan suci yang sempurna dan murni sepenuhnya. Seorang siswa pergi meninggalkan keduniawian dan mempraktikkan moralitas (Sutta 2, paragraf 41–63). Ia menjaga pintu-pintu indrianya dan mencapai empat jhàna (Sutta 2, paragraf 64–82 ); ia mencapai berbagai pandangan terang (Sutta 2, paragraf 83–84); ia menembus Empat Kebenaran Mulia, sang jalan dan lenyapnya kekotoran-kekotoran (Sutta 2, paragraf 85–97). dan ia mengetahui: “ … Tidak ada lagi yang lebih jauh di sini.” Itu, Kevaddha, disebut kesaktian pengajaran.

‘Dan Aku, Kevaddha, telah mengalami ketiga kesaktian ini dengan pengetahuan-super-Ku sendiri. Suatu ketika, Kevaddha, dalam kumpulan para bhikkhu ini, suatu pikiran melintas dalam benak seorang bhikkhu: “Aku ingin tahu di manakah empat unsur utama—unsur tanah, unsur air, unsur api, unsur angin—lenyap tanpa sisa.” Dan bhikkhu itu mencapai konsentrasi pikiran hingga mampu memunculkan jalan menuju alam dewa di hadapannya.

‘Kemudian, setelah sampai di alam dewa Empat Raja Dewa, ia bertanya kepada para dewa di sana: “Teman-teman, di manakah empat unsur utama—tanah, air, api, angin lenyap tanpa sisa?” Mendengar pertanyaan ini, para dewa dari alam Empat Raja Dewa berkata kepadanya: “Bhikkhu, kami tidak mengetahui di mana empat unsur utama itu lenyap tanpa sisa. Tetapi Empat Raja Dewa lebih mulia dan lebih bijaksana daripada kami. Mungkin mereka tahu di mana empat unsur utama lenyap … ”

‘Maka bhikkhu itu mendatangi Empat Raja Dewa dan mengajukan pertanyaan yang sama, tetapi mereka menjawab: “Kami tidak tahu, tetapi Tiga Puluh Tiga Dewa mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Maka bhikkhu itu mendatangi Tiga Puluh Tiga Dewa yang menjawab: “Kami tidak tahu, tetapi Sakka, raja para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Sakka, raja para dewa, berkata: “Dewa Yāma mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Dewa Yāma berkata: “Suyāma, putera para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Suyāma berkata: “Para dewa Tusita mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Para dewa Tusita berkata: “Santusita, putra para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Santusita berkata: “Para dewa Nimmānarati mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Para dewa Nimmānarati berkata: “Sunimmita, putra para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Sunimmita berkata: “Para dewa Paranimmita-Vasavatti mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘para dewa Paranimmita-Vasavatti berkata: “Vasavatti, putra para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Vasavatti berkata: “Para dewa pengikut Brahmā mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Kemudian bhikkhu itu, dengan mengerahkan konsentrasinya, memunculkan jalan menuju ke alam Brahmā di hadapannya. Ia pergi ke alam dewa para pengikut Brahmā dan bertanya kepada mereka. Mereka berkata: “Kami tidak tahu. Tapi ada Brahmā, Brahmā Agung, Sang Penakluk, yang Tidak Tertaklukkan, Maha Melihat, Maha Sakti, Raja, Sang Pencipta, Penguasa, Pengambil Keputusan dan Pemberi Perintah, Ayah dari Semua Yang Ada dan Yang Akan Ada. Ia lebih mulia dan lebih bijaksana daripada kami. Ia pasti mengetahui di mana empat unsur utama lenyap tanpa sisa.” “Dan di manakah, teman, Brahmā Agung itu berada sekarang?” “Bhikkhu, kami tidak tahu kapan, bagaimana dan di mana Brahmā akan muncul. Tetapi ketika tandanya terlihat—ketika cahaya muncul dan sinarnya memancar—maka Brahmā akan muncul. Tanda demikian menandakan bahwa ia akan muncul.”

‘Dan tidak lama kemudian, Sang Brahma Agung muncul. Dan bhikkhu itu mendatanginya dan berkata: “Teman, di manakah empat unsur utama—tanah, air, api, angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?” Brahmā Agung menjawab: “Bhikkhu, aku adalah Brahmā, Brahmā Agung, Sang Penakluk, yang Tidak Tertaklukkan, Maha Melihat, Maha Sakti, Raja, Sang Pencipta, Penguasa, Pengambil Keputusan dan Pemberi Perintah, Ayah dari Semua Yang Ada dan Yang Akan ada.”

‘Untuk kedua kalinya bhikkhu itu berkata: “Teman, aku tidak menanyakan apakah engkau Brahmā, Brahmā Agung … Aku menanyakan kepadamu di manakah empat unsur utama lenyap tanpa sisa.” Dan untuk kedua kalinya sang Brahmā Agung menjawab seperti sebelumnya.

‘Dan untuk ketiga kalinya bhikkhu itu berkata: “Teman, aku tidak menanyakan itu kepadamu, aku menanyakan di manakah empat unsur utama—tanah, air, api, angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?” Kemudian, Kevaddha, sang Brahmā Agung mengangkat bhikkhu tersebut, dan membawanya ke pinggir dan berkata: “Bhikkhu, para dewa ini percaya bahwa tidak ada apapun yang tidak terlihat oleh Brahmā, tidak ada yang tidak diketahui olehnya, tidak ada yang tidak disadarinya. Itulah sebabnya aku tidak berbicara di depan mereka. Tetapi, bhikkhu, aku tidak tahu di mana empat unsur utama itu lenyap tanpa sisa. Dan karena itu, bhikkhu, engkau telah salah bertindak, engkau telah keliru bertindak dengan melampaui Sang Bhagavā dan pergi mencari jawaban atas pertanyaan ini di tempat lain. Sekarang, bhikkhu, pergilah kepada Sang Bhagavā dan ajukan pertanyaanmu kepada Beliau, dan apapun jawaban yang Beliau berikan, terimalah.”

‘Maka bhikkhu itu, secepat seorang kuat merentangkan atau melipat tangannya, lenyap dari alam Brahmā dan muncul di hadapanKu. Ia bersujud di hadapanKu, kemudian duduk di satu sisi dan berkata: “Bhagavā, di manakah empat unsur utama—unsur tanah, unsur air, unsur api, unsur angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?”

‘Aku menjawab: “Bhikkhu, suatu ketika para pedagang yang melakukan perjalanan laut, ketika mereka berlayar di lautan, membawa di kapal mereka seekor burung yang dapat melihat daratan. Ketika mereka tidak dapat melihat daratan, mereka akan melepaskan burung itu. Burung itu terbang ke timur, ke selatan, ke barat, ke utara, ia terbang ke atas dan ke arah-arah antara dua arah di kompas. Jika burung itu melihat daratan di arah manapun, ia akan terbang ke sana. Tetapi jika ia tidak melihat daratan, ia akan kembali ke kapal. Demikianlah, bhikkhu, engkau telah pergi hingga ke alam Brahmā untuk mencari jawaban atas pertanyaanmu dan tidak menemukannya, dan sekarang engkau kembali kepadaKu. Tetapi, bhikkhu, engkau seharusnya tidak bertanya dengan cara ini: ‘Di manakah empat unsur utama—unsur tanah, unsur air, unsur api, unsur angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?’ Melainkan, beginilah seharusnya pertanyaan itu di ajukan:

‘Di manakah tanah, air, api dan angin tidak menemukan landasannya?

Di manakah yang panjang dan pendek, kecil dan besar, berpenampilan baik dan berpenampilan buruk –

Di manakah ‘“nama-dan-bentuk” dihancurkan seluruhnya?’

Dan jawabannya adalah:

‘Di mana kesadaran adalah tanpa gambaran, tidak terbatas, maha- cemerlang,

Di sanalah tanah, air, api dan angin tidak menemukan landasan,

Di sanalah yang panjang dan pendek, kecil dan besar, berpenampilan baik dan berpenampilan buruk –

Di sana “nama-dan-bentuk” dihancurkan seluruhnya.

Dengan lenyapnya kesadaran, semua ini dihancurkan.’”’

Demikianlah Sang Bhagavā berkata, dan perumah tangga Kevaddha, senang dan gembira mendengar kata-kata Beliau.

Sumber: https://legacy.suttacentral.net/id/dn11

ong Discourses

Kevaṭṭa Sutta

11. To Kevaṭṭa

Thus have I heard. Once the Exalted One was staying at Nāḷanda in Pāvārika’s mango grove. At that time, Kevaṭṭa, a young householder, approached the Exalted One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. Seated, he said to the Exalted One:

“Venerable Sir, this Nāḷanda of ours is influential and prosperous, populous, crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. It would be well if the Exalted One were to have some monk perform a miracle by the power surpassing that of ordinary men. Then would this Nāḷanda of ours become even so much more devoted to the Exalted One.”

In reply the Exalted One said to him:

“But, Kevaṭṭa, this is not how I give instruction to the monks: ‘Come now, monks; perform a miracle, by the power surpassing that of ordinary men, for the lay folk clad in their garments of white!”

And a second time Kevaṭṭa made the same request to the Exalted One, and received a second time the same reply.

And a third time Kevaṭṭa, the young householder, addressed the Exalted One, and said:

“I do not wish to be importunate to the Exalted One. I only say that this Nāḷanda of ours is influential and prosperous, populous, crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. It would be well if the Exalted One were to have some monk perform a miracle by the power surpassing that of ordinary men. Then this Nāḷanda of ours would become even so much more devoted to the Exalted One.”

“Kevaṭṭa, there are three sorts of miracles which I have made known to others, having myself understood and realized them. And what are the three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the miracle of instruction.

“And what, Kevaṭṭa, is the miracle of psychic power?

“Here, Kevaṭṭa, a monk wields the various psychic powers: having been one, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful; he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahmā-world. Then someone who has faith and trust sees him doing these things.

“He then tells this to an unbeliever, saying: ‘Wonderful and marvelous, Sir, is the psychic power and potency of that recluse. For truly I saw him exercising that psychic power in various ways: having been one, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful; he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahmā-world.’

“Then that unbeliever might say to him: ‘Well, Sir! There is a certain charm called the Gandhāra Charm. It is by means of this charm that he performs all this.’

“Now what think you, Kevaṭṭa? Might not an unbeliever so say?”

“Yes, Sir, he might.”

“Well, Kevaṭṭa, it is because of this, seeing the danger of such miracles, I dislike, reject and despise them.

“And what, Kevaṭṭa, is the miracle of telepathy?

“Here, a monk reads the minds of other beings, of other people, reads their mental states, their thoughts and ponderings, and says: ‘That is how your mind is, that is how it inclines, that is in your heart.’ Then someone who has faith and trust sees him doing these things.

“He then tells this to an unbeliever, saying: ‘Wonderful and marvelous, Sir, is the telepathic power and potency of that recluse. For truly I saw him reading the minds of other beings, of other people, reading their mental states, their thoughts and ponderings, and saying: “That is how your mind is, that is how it inclines, that is in your heart.”’

“Then that unbeliever should say to him: ‘Well, Sir! There is a certain charm called the Manika Charm. It is by means of this charm that he performs all this.’

“Now what think you, Kevaṭṭa? Might not an unbeliever so say?”

“Yes, Sir, he might.”

“Well, Kevaṭṭa, it is because of this, seeing the danger of such miracles, I dislike, reject and despise them.

The Miracle of Instruction

“And what, Kevaṭṭa, is the miracle of instruction?

“Here, Kevaṭṭa, a monk teaches in this way:

“‘Reason in this way, do not reason in that way. Consider this, and not that. Get rid of this disposition, train yourself, and remain in that.’ This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called ‘The miracle of instruction.’

“Further, Kevaṭṭa, a Tathāgata arises in the world, a worthy one, perfectly enlightened, endowed with clear knowledge and conduct, accomplished, a knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and men, enlightened and exalted. Having realized by his own direct knowledge this world with its devas, its Māras, and its Brahmās, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its rulers and people, he makes it known to others. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, possessing meaning and phrasing; he reveals the holy life that is fully complete and purified.

“A householder, or a householder’s son, or one born into some other family, hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, he gains faith in the Tathāgata. Endowed with such faith, he reflects: ‘The household life is crowded, a path of dust. Going forth is like the open air. It is not easy for one dwelling at home to lead the perfectly complete, perfectly purified holy life, bright as a polished conch. Let me then shave off my hair and beard, put on saffron robes, and go forth from home to homelessness.’

“After some time he abandons his accumulation of wealth, be it large or small; he abandons his circle of relatives, be it large or small; he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from home to homelessness.

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the restraint of the Pātimokkha, possessed of proper behavior and resort. Having taken up the rules of training, he trains himself in them, seeing danger in the slightest faults. He comes to be endowed with wholesome bodily and verbal action, his livelihood is purified, and he is possessed of moral discipline. He guards the doors of his sense faculties, is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension, and is content.

The Small Section on Moral Discipline

“And how, Kevaṭṭa, is the monk possessed of moral discipline? Herein, Kevaṭṭa, having abandoned the destruction of life, the monk abstains from the destruction of life. He has laid down the rod and weapon and dwells conscientious, full of kindness, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings. This pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned taking what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. Accepting and expecting only what is given, he lives in honesty with a pure mind. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned incelibacy, he leads the holy life of celibacy. He dwells aloof and abstains from the village practice of sexual intercourse. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned false speech, he abstains from falsehood. He speaks only the truth, he lives devoted to truth; trustworthy and reliable, he does not deceive anyone in the world. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned slander, he abstains from slander. He does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide others from the people here, nor does he repeat here what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide these from the people there. Thus he is a reconciler of those who are divided and a promoter of friendships. Rejoicing, delighting, and exulting in concord, he speaks only words that are conducive to concord. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks only such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, endearing, going to the heart, polite, amiable and agreeable to the manyfolk. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual and beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline. His words are worth treasuring; they are timely, backed by reasons, measured, and connected with the good. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only in one part of the day, refraining from food at night and from eating at improper times.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from witnessing unsuitable shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands, embellishing himself with scents, and beautifying himself with unguents.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and silver.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain, raw meat, women and girls, male and female slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and swine, elephants, cattle, horses and mares.

“He abstains from accepting fields and lands.

“He abstains from running messages and errands.

“He abstains from buying and selling.

“He abstains from dealing with false weights, false metals, and false measures.

“He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, robbery, plunder, and violence.

“This too pertains to his moral discipline.

The Intermediate Section on Moral Discipline

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, continually cause damage to seed and plant life—to plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buds, and seeds—he abstains from damaging seed and plant life. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of stored-up goods, such as stored-up food, drinks, garments, vehicles, bedding, scents, and comestibles—he abstains from the use of stored-up goods. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, attend unsuitable shows, such as:

  • shows featuring dancing, singing, or instrumental music;
  • theatrical performances;
  • narrations of legends;
  • music played by hand-clapping, cymbals and drums;
  • picture houses;
  • acrobatic performances;
  • combats of: elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks and quails;
  • stick-fights, boxing and wrestling;
  • sham-fights, roll-calls, battle-arrays and regimental reviews—

he abstains from attending such unsuitable shows. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, indulge in the following games and recreations:

  • aṭṭhapada (a game played on an eight-row chessboard);
  • dasapada (a game played on a ten-row chessboard);
  • ākāsa (played by imagining a board in the air);
  • parihārapatha (“hopscotch,” a diagram is drawn on the ground and one has to jump in the allowable spaces avoiding the lines);
  • santika (“spillikins,” assembling the pieces in a pile, removing
  • and returning them without disturbing the pile);
  • khalika (dice games);
  • ghaṭika (hitting a short stick with a long stick);
  • salākahattha (a game played by dipping the hand in paint or dye, striking the ground or a wall, and requiring the participants to show the figure of an elephant, a horse etc.);
  • akkha (ball games);
  • paṅgacīra (blowing through toy pipes made of leaves);
  • vaṅkaka (ploughing with miniature ploughs);
  • mokkhacika (turning somersaults);
  • ciṅgulika (playing with paper windmills);
  • pattāḷaka (playing with toy measures);
  • rathaka (playing with toy chariots);
  • dhanuka (playing with toy bows);
  • akkharika (guessing at letters written in the air or on ones back);
  • manesika (guessing others’ thoughts);
  • yathāvajja (games involving mimicry of deformities)—

he abstains from such games that are a basis for negligence. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of high and luxurious beds and seats, such as:

  • spacious couches;
  • thrones with animal figures carved on the supports;
  • long-haired coverlets;
  • multi-colored patchwork coverlets;
  • white woolen coverlets
  • woolen coverlets embroidered with flowers;
  • quilts stuffed with cotton;
  • woolen coverlets embroidered with animal figures;
  • woolen coverlets with hair on both sides or on one side;
  • bedspreads embroidered with gems;
  • silk coverlets;
  • dance-hall carpets;
  • elephant, horse, or chariot rugs;
  • rugs of antelope-skins;
  • choice spreads made of kadali-deer hides;
  • spreads with red awnings overhead;
  • couches with red cushions for head and feet—

he abstains from the use of such high and luxurious beds and seats. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of such devices for embellishing and beautifying themselves as the following:

  • rubbing scented powders into the body
  • massaging with oils
  • bathing in perfumed water
  • kneading the limbs
  • mirrors
  • ointments
  • garlands
  • scents
  • unguents
  • face-powders
  • make-up
  • bracelets
  • head-bands
  • decorated walking sticks
  • ornamented medicine-tubes
  • rapiers
  • sunshades
  • embroidered sandals
  • turbans
  • diadems
  • yaktail whisks
  • and long-fringed white robes—

he abstains from the use of such devices for embellishment and beautification. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in frivolous chatter, such as:

  • talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state
  • talk about armies, dangers, and wars
  • talk about food, drink, garments, and lodgings;
  • talk about garlands and scents;
  • talk about relations, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, and countries;
  • talk about women and talk about heroes;
  • street talk and talk by the well;
  • talk about those departed in days gone by;
  • rambling chit-chat;
  • speculations about the world and about the sea;
  • talk about gain and loss—

he abstains from such frivolous chatter. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in wrangling argumentation, (saying to one another):

‘You don’t understand this doctrine and discipline. It is I who understand this doctrine and discipline.’

‘How can you understand this doctrine and discipline?’

‘You’re practicing the wrong way. I’m practicing the right way.’

‘I’m being consistent. You’re inconsistent.’

‘What should have been said first you said last, what should have been said last you said first.’

‘What you took so long to think out has been confuted.’

‘Your doctrine has been refuted. You’re defeated. Go, try to save your doctrine, or disentangle yourself now if you can’—

he abstains from such wrangling argumentation. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in running messages and errands for kings, ministers of state, khattiyas, brahmins, householders, or youths, (who command them): ‘Go here, go there, take this, bring that from there’—he abstains from running such messages and errands. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in scheming, talking, hinting, belittling others, and pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from such kinds of scheming and talking. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

The Large Section on Moral Discipline

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • prophesying long life, prosperity etc., or the reverse, from the marks on a person’s limbs, hands, feet, etc.;
  • divining by means of omens and signs;
  • making auguries on the basis of thunderbolts and celestial portents;
  • interpreting ominous dreams;
  • telling fortunes from marks on the body;
  • making auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
  • offering fire oblations;
  • offering oblations from a ladle;
  • offering oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee and oil to the gods;
  • offering oblations from the mouth;
  • offering blood-sacrifices to the gods;
  • making predictions based on the fingertips;
  • determining whether the site for a proposed house or garden is propitious or not;
  • making predictions for officers of state;
  • laying demons in a cemetery;
  • laying ghosts;
  • knowledge of charms to be pronounced by one living in an earthen house;
  • snake charming;
  • the poison craft, scorpion craft, rat craft, bird craft, crow craft;
  • foretelling the number of years that a man has to live;
  • reciting charms to give protection from arrows;
  • reciting charms to understand the language of animals—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while livin